Fischer A., Goldman M., Grass E.
Vaccin contre le Covid-19 : « La confiance est le pivot de toute stratégie vaccinale »
Le Monde, November 2020
Public trust is the backbone of any immunization strategy. In the opinion piece published in Le Monde, Michel Goldman, Alain Fischer and Etienne Grass argue that building confidence of the population will be one of the biggest challenges in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Dewatripont M.
« C’est le Covid-19 qui tue l’économie, bien plus que les mesures de confinement »
Le Monde, November 2020
The current health situation in many European countries is discouraging. The “containment fatigue” has led the authorities to delay taking drastic measures to halt the rise of the virus. A key reason for this delay is the fear of paralysing economic activity. In an article published in the LE Monde, Mathias Dewatripont explains how economic calculations can optimise the response to the spread of the pandemic.
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Goldman M., Silva M.
Reflections on the Collaborative Fight Against COVID-19
Frontiers in Medicine, September 2020
Clinical trials to identify efficient treatments against COVID-19 flourish worldwide without much attention to patients’ voice so far. As therapeutic interventions in the early phase of the disease are attracting more and more interest, our colleagues Michel Goldman and Mitchell Silva argue that patients’ organizations should be more involved in the design of clinical protocols in order to define the most relevant end-points and assess the risk-benefit balance of new therapies.
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Aghion P., Amaral-Garcia S., Dewatripont M., Goldman M.
How to strengthen European industries’ leadership in vaccine research and innovation
VoxEU, September 2020
While EU countries have been able to rely on a more resilient social model and a science-based approach in managing the Covid crisis more successfully so far than the US, Europe has fallen short in matching the US effort to incentivise Covid vaccine innovation. This is due to a lower level of financial investment and also an inability to ensure coordination across different (national and European) funding schemes. This column calls for the creation of a European equivalent to the US Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority to tackle these problems, thereby strengthening European industries’ leadership in vaccine research and innovation.
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Goldman M., Kazatchkine M.
Viewpoint: anti-viral antibodies must be prioritised in the EU coronavirus response
Science|Business, August 2020
The European Commission’s work to secure access to potential COVID-19 vaccines is welcome, but other therapies are needed to end the pandemic and negotiations with European manufacturers of anti-viral antibodies should not be further delayed. Read the plea in favor of the EU support for late-phase development of anti-viral antibodies.
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Stevens H., Neunez M.
COVID-19, The Quarantine-Virus Disease
Frontiers for Young Minds, July 2020
Explaining COVID-19 to children is another key mission of scientists. With that aim, our colleagues have published an article in Frontiers for Young Minds, an open access scientific journal that brings the latest research to school kids between 8-15 years old. 
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Goldman M., Kazatchkine M.
The Case for COVID-19 Antibody Therapies
Project Syndicate, July 2020
Given the limitations of existing drugs and the uncertainty regarding vaccines, the world must also focus on developing new weapons to target the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. Besides anti-viral chemical drugs, genetically engineered antibodies might be ideal for this purpose. Read the article published in Project Syndicate by Michel Kazatchkine and our co-director, Michel Goldman, where they call for more funds to be allocated towards the research on antibody treatments.
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Natali I., Amaral-Garcia S.
COVID-19 Pandemic and Pollution: Evidence from Belgium and France
Learning from the curve, June 2020
Fighting the COVID-19 pandemic requires a better understanding of the so-called ‘risk factors’ associated with the spread of the virus. Identifying the driving forces favoring the diffusion of the virus is a topic of primary importance, not only to contain the rapid spread of the current pandemic, but also to prevent the occurrence of future pandemics. Research conducted by Ilaria Natali and Sofia Amaral-Garcia shows that pollution may be an important factor contributing to the diffusion of the virus and as such should be taken into account by policy-makers.
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Amaral-Garcia S.
Medical Device Companies and Doctors: Do their Interactions Affect Medical Treatments?
ECARES working paper, June 2020
Medical device companies may play a role in the type of treatments provided to patients, namely by influencing physicians to use their products. Physicians interact frequently with medical device representatives, which raises concerns that these relationships might bias healthcare providers. Using data on payments from medical device companies to physicians combined with hospital discharge datasets, Sofia Amaral-Garcia assesses the impact of payments on medical treatments.
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Kazatchkine M., Goldman M., Vincent J-L.
Antibody-based therapies for COVID-19: Can Europe move faster?
PLOS Medicine, May 2020
In the article published by PLOS, Michel Goldman, Michel Kazatchkine and Jean-Louis Vincent call on the medical and scientific European community to urgently coordinate research efforts on passive immunotherapy, share data and protocols in real-time, and pool efforts to decrease as much as possible the time for validating immunotherapy with donated plasma.
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Gilbert M., Dewatripont M., Muraille E., Platteau J-P., Goldman M.
Preparing for a responsible lockdown exit strategy
Nature Medicine, April 2020
In just a few weeks’ time, leaders across the globe will have to start making decisions about lifting lockdown policies, with considerable social, economic and political consequences. In the article published in Nature Medicine our co-directors, Mathias Dewatripont and Michel Goldman, and their colleagues from ULB and UNamur, propose a framework for what is arguably the most difficult health challenge that governments have faced since the beginning of this century: a responsible lockdown exit strategy.
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Dewatripont M., Goldman M., Muraille E., Platteau J-P.
Rapidly identifying workers who are immune to COVID-19 and virus-free is a priority for restarting the economy
VoxEU, March 2020
In the article published in VoxEU our co-directors, Mathias Dewatripont and Michel Goldman, emphasize the need for mass serological screening in order to restart the economy as fast as possible. They describe how a combination of two currently available tests could identify people who are both free from COVID-19 and immune to it, and thus are safe to go back to work. A targeted scaling-up of procedures for both tests will help maintain vital services and accelerate the relaunch of the economy, while minimising the risk of the epidemic recurring after restrictions are lifted.
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Grine L, Janssens R, van Overbeeke E, Derijcke D, Silva M, Delys B, Dusart I, Aertsen V, Mertens de Wilmars M, Robaczewska J, Stevens H.
Improving Patient Involvement in the Lifecycle of Medicines: Insights From the EUPATI BE Survey
Frontiers in Medicine, February 2020
EUPATI Belgium (EUPATI.be) is an informal gathering of local partners who are interested in improving patient involvement in healthcare innovation and medicines research and development. Authors used a nation-wide survey to inquire into Belgian stakeholders’ perception on patient involvement. To this end, an electronic survey was available in French, Dutch and English, and accessible for 11 months. Rresults will help to understand and tackle the various barriers that currently hamper patient involvement, whilst highlighting the need for a collaborative landscape from the multi-stakeholder perspective.
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Dewatripont M., Ginsburgh V., Goldman M., Legros P., Natali I.
Prescription Opioids and Economic Hardship in France
IDEAS, February 2020
This paper studies how opioid analgesic sales are related to socioeconomic conditions in France. Using the OpenHealth database on prescription opioid retail sales at the department level from 2008 to 2017, the authors show that increases in the poverty rate induce more sales: a one percentage point increase in poverty produces, approximately, a ten percent increase in opioid use. The analysis further shows that opioid use is positively related to the share of middle-aged people and the share of individuals with basic education only, while it is negatively related to population density.
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Neunez M., Goldman M., and Ghezzi P.
Online Information on Probiotics: Does It Match Scientific Evidence?
Frontiers in Medicine, January 2020
Probiotics are over-the-counter products marketed for enhancing human health. Online information has been key in their worldwide promotion. However, only few rigorous clinical studies have met the stringent criteria required to establish the efficacy and safety of probiotics. The present study was undertaken to assess the information quality of webpages referring to probiotics and to compare the recommendations available online with the information collected from trusted scientific sources. The authors evaluated 150 webpages returned by Google searching “probiotics” in terms of typology of website, health information quality based on the JAMA score and the HONcode certification, as well as completeness of the information.
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Fischer A., Dewatripont M. and Goldman M.
Benefit Corporation: a path to affordable gene therapies?
Nature Medicine, November 2019
With the growing number of efficient gene therapies on the market, now is the time to take actions to ensure reasonable pricing of gene therapy products. In the article published in Nature Medicine, Alain Fischer, Mathias Dewatripont and Michel Goldman propose to incentivize gene therapy companies to adopt a status of certified B corporations that translates their corporate social responsibility into concrete commitments.
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Edited by Stevens H. and Goldman M
eBook ‘Public-Private Partnerships as Drivers of Innovation in Healthcare’ (2019).
Frontiers for Medicine., November 2019
Multi-stakeholder collaborations involving partners from public and private sectors are essential to address global health challenges and to move precision medicine forward. This eBook assembles a collection of papers which either illustrate recent achievements or discuss new perspectives offered by public-private partnerships in healthcare.
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Janssens R, Russo S, van Overbeeke E, Simoens, S., Stevens H, et al.
Patient Preferences in the Medical Product Life Cycle: What do Stakeholders Think? Semi-Structured Qualitative Interviews in Europe and the USA
Patient, October 2019
Patient preferences (PP), which are investigated in PP studies using qualitative or quantitative methods, are a growing area of interest to the following stakeholders involved in the medical product lifecycle: academics, health technology assessment bodies, payers, industry, patients, physicians, and regulators. However, the use of PP in decisions along the medical product lifecycle remains limited. As the adoption of PP heavily relies on these stakeholders, knowledge of their perceptions of PP is critical. This study aimed to characterize stakeholders’ attitudes, needs, and concerns with respect to PP in decision making along the medical product lifecycle.
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Janssens R, Huys I, van Overbeeke E, Whichello C, Harding S, Kübler J, Juhaeri J, Ciaglia A, Simoens S, Stevens H, et al.
Opportunities and challenges for the inclusion of patient preferences in the medical product life cycle: a systematic review.
BMC medical informatics and decision making, October 2019
The publication aimed to understand the potential roles, reasons for using PP and the expectations, concerns and requirements associated with PP in industry processes, regulatory benefit-risk assessment (BRA) and marketing authorization (MA), and HTA and reimbursement decision-making. A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature published between January 2011 and March 2018 was performed. Consulted databases were EconLit, Embase, Guidelines International Network, PsycINFO and PubMed. Literature was analyzed using NVivo (QSR international).
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Bolliger L, Stevens H.
From opioid pain management to opioid crisis in the USA: How can Public-Private Partnerships help?
Frontiers in Medicine, May 2019
The current opioid crisis in the USA arose from (at first) successful opioid pain management in three waves, starting in the’90s. Today, USA patients consume opioid drugs on a massive scale. Considering their potential for tolerance, as well as their potential for lethality in relatively small overdose, the overuse of opioids form an urgent threat to public health in the USA. Since the opioid crisis is a complex phenomenon, several stakeholders are needed to tackle the problem. Both public and private stakeholders should collaborate, e.g., in Public-Private Partnerships. Those collaborations should focus on different aspects related to the opioid crisis such as medical and societal, as well as economical and regulatory issues. Additionally, collaborations should cover interdisciplinary education and training of various healthcare actors involved.
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Neunez M., Goldman M., Goldman S. and Lambert P.
Vaccines, Shots That Protect You
Frontiers for Young Minds, February 2019
Tomorrow, your mother will take you to the doctor to receive your vaccines. Why do you need these shots since you are healthy and have already received some shots when you were just a baby? In this article, you will discover the reasons why booster vaccines are crucial, to protect you, your brothers and sisters but also your classmates and your friends.
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Janssens R., van Overbeeke E., Stevens H. et al.
Patient Involvement in the Lifecycle of Medicines According to Belgian Stakeholders: the Gap Between Theory and Practice
Frontiers in Medicine, October 2018
Patient involvement is often acknowledged as an important aspect of the lifecycle of medicines. In view of the diversity of stakeholders and types of decisions in which patients might be involved, an in-depth understanding of these stakeholders’ views toward involving patients in the lifecycle of medicines is essential. The barriers identified in this study hamper transitioning patient involvement from theory to practice. Bridging this gap requires addressing the identified barriers and unresolved questions surrounding the right methodology for involving the “right patients” to involve and means to increase patient knowledge. There is a need to focus on assessing the value of methods that allow to indirectly capture patients’ perspective both in the context of development as well as in the context of evaluation.
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Stevens H., Huys I.
Intellectual Property in Early-Phase Research Public–Private Partnerships in the Biomedical Sector“, The Cambridge Handbook of Public-Private Partnerships, Intellectual Property Governance, and Sustainable Development
Cambridge University Press, September 2018, pp 109-140
Public–private partnerships (PPPs) play an increasingly prominent role in addressing global development challenges. United Nations agencies and other organizations are relying on PPPs to improve global health, facilitate access to scientific information, and encourage the diffusion of climate change technologies. For this reason, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development highlights their centrality in the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). At the same time, the intellectual property dimensions and implications of these efforts remain underexamined. Through selective case studies, this illuminating work contributes to a better understanding of the relationships between PPPs and intellectual property considered within a global knowledge governance framework, including innovation, capacitybuilding, technological learning, and diffusion. Linking global governance of knowledge via intellectual property to the SDGs, this is the first book to chart the activities of PPPs at this important nexus.
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Dewatripont M., Goldman M.
Free Drug Samples and the Opioid Crisis
The New England Journal of Medicine, August 2018
The provision of free drug samples for promotional purposes is common in the United States. However, there is evidence that free samples often do not reach the intended patient population, reduce patients’ adherence to their treatment plans, and eventually increase health care costs. In the case of prescription opioids, free samples can lead to even more dramatic consequences. Opioids are potent stimulators of the reward system of the brain, so getting a free “taste” of these medications can precipitate compulsive and long-lasting seeking of substances that reproduce their effects. With a view of containing the opiod crisis, Michel Goldman and Mathias Dewatripont call U.S. policymakers to urgently consider a ban on the practice of providing free starter coupons for narcotic and psychotropic substances.
Link to the letter

Arif N., Al-Jefri M., Harb Bizzi I., Boitano Perano G., Goldman M., Haq I., Leng Chua K., Mengozzi M., Neunez M., Smith H. and Ghezzi P.
Fake News or Weak Science? Visibility and Characterization of Antivaccine Webpages Returned by Google in Different Languages and Countries
Frontiers in Immunology, June 2018
Acceptance and uptake of vaccination is important for reaching public health targets. The information available, either from books, television news, newspaper articles, or online sources, has a major impact on how the public perceives vaccines. It has often been pointed out that antivaccine information available on the Internet has a high prevalence and could impact negatively vaccination decisions. The purpose of the study was to analyze the information available to the public on the link between vaccines and autism. The study provides an approach to monitor vaccine-related information on the web.
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Stevens H., Neunez M., Laokri S. and Goldman M.
Fostering interdisciplinarity to educate the next generation of global health actors: a key mission of the newly created I3h Institute
Geneva Health Form 2018, 7th edition, April 2018
Collaborative innovation is pivotal to move global health forward. There is a critical need to develop among all stakeholders a holistic vision of the multiple factors that intervene in the translation of scientific knowledge into accessible and affordable care.
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Laokri S. and Stevens H.
What role can novel technologies and practices play in the provision of equitable access to quality care for tuberculosis (TB) patients in low- and middle-income countries
Despite remarkable progress attributable to the TB control strategy, shortening the patients’ pathways and reducing the economic burden of disease remain major global health challenges.
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Stevens H. and Huys I.
Innovative Approaches to Increase Access to Medicines in Developing Countries
Frontiers in Medicine, December 2017
Access to essential medicines is problematic for one third of all persons worldwide. Several innovative approaches, based on partnerships, intellectual property, and pricing, are used to stimulate innovation, promote healthcare delivery, and reduce global health disparities. No single approach suffices, and therefore stakeholders need to further engage in partnerships promoting knowledge and technology transfer in assuring essential medicines to be manufactured, authorized, and distributed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in an effort of making them available at affordable and acceptable conditions.
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Stevens H., Huys I., Debackere K., Goldman M., Stevens P., Mahoney R.
Vaccines: Accelerating Innovation and Access
Global Challenges Report, WIPO, 2017
The analysis aims to put into perspective debates around health innovation and the availability of health technologies in developing countries, especially with respect to the role of IP. In particular, it provides an overview of how IP has been used to meet global health challenges in the vaccines field, and considers whether lessons can be drawn to inform other important health technologies.
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Laokri S.
Collaborative Approaches and Policy Opportunities for Accelerated Progress toward Effective Disease Prevention, Care and Control: Using the Case of Poverty Diseases to Explore Universal Access to Affordable Health Care.
Frontiers in Medicine, 2017 Aug 25;4:130. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2017.00130. eCollection 2017.
Despite a large political commitment and mobilization efforts from funding, the global development goal of financial protection for health—newly adopted in TB control as no TB-affected household experiencing catastrophic expenditure—may remain aspirational. To enhance effective access to care for all, innovative opportunities in patient-centered and collaborative practices must be taken.”
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Stevens H, Van Overwalle G, Van Looy B, Huys I.
IP policies in early-phase research in public-private partnerships: an overview and assessment of current practices.
Nat Biotechnol. 2016, 34(5);504-10.
An Intellectual Property (IP) policy analysis reveals the use of a variety of IP frameworks within early-phase biomedical Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Dependent on the nature of the research objectives, enacted IP frameworks or „knowledge sharing strategies‟ differ, ranging from „partnership oriented‟ models towards „open‟ models.

Goldman M.
Education in Medicine: Moving the boundaries to foster interdisciplinarity.
Front Med. 2016 Apr(3). Epub. 2016 Apr 8.
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmed.2016.00015/full
“Future advances [in precision medicine] will depend on innovative educational programs that will provide the next generation of healthcare professionals with sound and robust bases for interdisciplinary patient-focused approaches and that will develop their mindset for collaboration.”

Murray F., Aghion P., Dewatripont M., Kolev J., Stern S.
Of Mice and Academics: Examining the Effect of Openness on Innovation
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, February 2016, 8(1): 212–252
The paper argues that openness, by lowering costs to access existing research, can enhance both early and late stage innovation through greater exploration of novel research directions.
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Lambert PH, Goldman M.
Vaccination and Autoimmune Diseases.
The Vaccine Book.2016;Ch.9:161-75. Elsevier, ISBN: 978-0-12-802174-3.
The association of vaccination and the potential risk of autoimmune adverse effects deserves particular attention. The book chapter reviews the reality of this concern for infection-associated autoimmune manifestations and guidelines are defined for clinicians to face the challenge of vaccinating patients with autoimmune diseases.

Stevens H, Van Overwalle G, Van Looy B, Huys I.
Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Case Study Analysis Reveals the True Added Value of Early-Phase Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs).
Biotechnology Law Report 2015, 34(4), 153-165 doi:10.1089/blr.2015.29008.hs
The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) is a Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) between the European Union, represented by the European Commission (EC), and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA). IMI is currently the world’s largest PPP in the biomedical sciences. Authors set up a case study analysis to investigate the outputs on the short term and the outcomes on the long term of 6 IMI consortia reaching the project end. The specific case studies define the (missed) business opportunities and reveal the added value for science and society.
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Lim MD, Brumfield MA, Goldman M.
Philanthropies as partners for drug development in public–private partnerships.
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences, 2015,1(1);1-4.
http://jmds.whioce.com/index.php/journal-of-medicines-development/article/view/01001/PDF_1
In addition to providing financial support and expertise, philanthropic foundations are in a unique position to coordinate the patient and research communities to enable and accelerate specific medicines development projects.

Gunn M, Lim MD, Cross D, Goldman M.
Benchmarking the scientific output of the Innovative Medicines Initiative.
Nat Biotechnol. 2015 Aug;33(8):811-2.
A holistic framework, going beyond measuring bibliometric data, has been proposed to compare and improve the performance of ongoing consortia and establish new ‘fit-for-purpose’ public-private partnerships. The whole framework of measurements takes into consideration evaluation criteria applicable to both the corporate and public worlds.

Stevens H, Van Overwalle G, Van Looy B, Huys I.
Perspectives and opportunities for precompetitive public-private partnerships.
Biotechnology Law Report 2013, 32(3), 131-139
A holistic framework, going beyond measuring bibliometric data, has been proposed to compare and improve the performance of ongoing consortia and establish new ‘fit-for-purpose’ public-private partnerships. The whole framework of measurements takes into consideration evaluation criteria applicable to both the corporate and public worlds.
Link to the publication