Kazatchkine M., Goldman M., Vincent J-L.
Antibody-based therapies for COVID-19: Can Europe move faster?
PLOS Medicine, May 2020
In the article published by PLOS, Michel Goldman, Michel Kazatchkine and Jean-Louis Vincent call on the medical and scientific European community to urgently coordinate research efforts on passive immunotherapy, share data and protocols in real-time, and pool efforts to decrease as much as possible the time for validating immunotherapy with donated plasma.
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Gilbert M., Dewatripont M., Muraille E., Platteau J-P., Goldman M.
Preparing for a responsible lockdown exit strategy
Nature Medicine, April 2020
In just a few weeks’ time, leaders across the globe will have to start making decisions about lifting lockdown policies, with considerable social, economic and political consequences. In the article published in Nature Medicine our co-directors, Mathias Dewatripont and Michel Goldman, and their colleagues from ULB and UNamur, propose a framework for what is arguably the most difficult health challenge that governments have faced since the beginning of this century: a responsible lockdown exit strategy.
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Dewatripont M., Goldman M., Muraille E., Platteau J-P.
Rapidly identifying workers who are immune to COVID-19 and virus-free is a priority for restarting the economy
VoxEU, March 2020
In the article published in VoxEU our co-directors, Mathias Dewatripont and Michel Goldman, emphasize the need for mass serological screening in order to restart the economy as fast as possible. They describe how a combination of two currently available tests could identify people who are both free from COVID-19 and immune to it, and thus are safe to go back to work. A targeted scaling-up of procedures for both tests will help maintain vital services and accelerate the relaunch of the economy, while minimising the risk of the epidemic recurring after restrictions are lifted.
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Dewatripont M., Ginsburgh V., Goldman M., Legros P., Natali I.
Prescription Opioids and Economic Hardship in France
IDEAS, February 2020
This paper studies how opioid analgesic sales are related to socioeconomic conditions in France. Using the OpenHealth database on prescription opioid retail sales at the department level from 2008 to 2017, the authors show that increases in the poverty rate induce more sales: a one percentage point increase in poverty produces, approximately, a ten percent increase in opioid use. The analysis further shows that opioid use is positively related to the share of middle-aged people and the share of individuals with basic education only, while it is negatively related to population density.
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Neunez M., Goldman M., and Ghezzi P.
Online Information on Probiotics: Does It Match Scientific Evidence?
Frontiers in Medicine, January 2020
Probiotics are over-the-counter products marketed for enhancing human health. Online information has been key in their worldwide promotion. However, only few rigorous clinical studies have met the stringent criteria required to establish the efficacy and safety of probiotics. The present study was undertaken to assess the information quality of webpages referring to probiotics and to compare the recommendations available online with the information collected from trusted scientific sources. The authors evaluated 150 webpages returned by Google searching “probiotics” in terms of typology of website, health information quality based on the JAMA score and the HONcode certification, as well as completeness of the information.
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Fischer A., Dewatripont M. and Goldman M.
Benefit Corporation: a path to affordable gene therapies?
Nature Medicine, November 2019
With the growing number of efficient gene therapies on the market, now is the time to take actions to ensure reasonable pricing of gene therapy products. In the article published in Nature Medicine, Alain Fischer, Mathias Dewatripont and Michel Goldman propose to incentivize gene therapy companies to adopt a status of certified B corporations that translates their corporate social responsibility into concrete commitments.
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Neunez M., Goldman M., Goldman S. and Lambert P.
Vaccines, Shots That Protect You
Frontiers for Young Minds, February 2019
Tomorrow, your mother will take you to the doctor to receive your vaccines. Why do you need these shots since you are healthy and have already received some shots when you were just a baby? In this article, you will discover the reasons why booster vaccines are crucial, to protect you, your brothers and sisters but also your classmates and your friends.
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Janssens R., van Overbeeke E., Stevens H. et al.
Patient Involvement in the Lifecycle of Medicines According to Belgian Stakeholders: the Gap Between Theory and Practice
Frontiers in Medicine, October 2018
Patient involvement is often acknowledged as an important aspect of the lifecycle of medicines. In view of the diversity of stakeholders and types of decisions in which patients might be involved, an in-depth understanding of these stakeholders’ views toward involving patients in the lifecycle of medicines is essential. The barriers identified in this study hamper transitioning patient involvement from theory to practice. Bridging this gap requires addressing the identified barriers and unresolved questions surrounding the right methodology for involving the “right patients” to involve and means to increase patient knowledge. There is a need to focus on assessing the value of methods that allow to indirectly capture patients’ perspective both in the context of development as well as in the context of evaluation.
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Stevens H., Huys I.
Intellectual Property in Early-Phase Research Public–Private Partnerships in the Biomedical Sector“, The Cambridge Handbook of Public-Private Partnerships, Intellectual Property Governance, and Sustainable Development
Cambridge University Press, September 2018, pp 109-140
Public–private partnerships (PPPs) play an increasingly prominent role in addressing global development challenges. United Nations agencies and other organizations are relying on PPPs to improve global health, facilitate access to scientific information, and encourage the diffusion of climate change technologies. For this reason, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development highlights their centrality in the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). At the same time, the intellectual property dimensions and implications of these efforts remain underexamined. Through selective case studies, this illuminating work contributes to a better understanding of the relationships between PPPs and intellectual property considered within a global knowledge governance framework, including innovation, capacitybuilding, technological learning, and diffusion. Linking global governance of knowledge via intellectual property to the SDGs, this is the first book to chart the activities of PPPs at this important nexus.
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Dewatripont M., Goldman M.
Free Drug Samples and the Opioid Crisis
The New England Journal of Medicine, August 2018
The provision of free drug samples for promotional purposes is common in the United States. However, there is evidence that free samples often do not reach the intended patient population, reduce patients’ adherence to their treatment plans, and eventually increase health care costs. In the case of prescription opioids, free samples can lead to even more dramatic consequences. Opioids are potent stimulators of the reward system of the brain, so getting a free “taste” of these medications can precipitate compulsive and long-lasting seeking of substances that reproduce their effects. With a view of containing the opiod crisis, Michel Goldman and Mathias Dewatripont call U.S. policymakers to urgently consider a ban on the practice of providing free starter coupons for narcotic and psychotropic substances.
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Arif N., Al-Jefri M., Harb Bizzi I., Boitano Perano G., Goldman M., Haq I., Leng Chua K., Mengozzi M., Neunez M., Smith H. and Ghezzi P.
Fake News or Weak Science? Visibility and Characterization of Antivaccine Webpages Returned by Google in Different Languages and Countries
Frontiers in Immunology, June 2018
Acceptance and uptake of vaccination is important for reaching public health targets. The information available, either from books, television news, newspaper articles, or online sources, has a major impact on how the public perceives vaccines. It has often been pointed out that antivaccine information available on the Internet has a high prevalence and could impact negatively vaccination decisions. The purpose of the study was to analyze the information available to the public on the link between vaccines and autism. The study provides an approach to monitor vaccine-related information on the web.
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Stevens H., Neunez M., Laokri S. and Goldman M.
Fostering interdisciplinarity to educate the next generation of global health actors: a key mission of the newly created I3h Institute
Geneva Health Form 2018, 7th edition, April 2018
Collaborative innovation is pivotal to move global health forward. There is a critical need to develop among all stakeholders a holistic vision of the multiple factors that intervene in the translation of scientific knowledge into accessible and affordable care.
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Laokri S. and Stevens H.
What role can novel technologies and practices play in the provision of equitable access to quality care for tuberculosis (TB) patients in low- and middle-income countries
Despite remarkable progress attributable to the TB control strategy, shortening the patients’ pathways and reducing the economic burden of disease remain major global health challenges.
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Stevens H. and Huys I.
Innovative Approaches to Increase Access to Medicines in Developing Countries
Frontiers in Medicine, December 2017
Access to essential medicines is problematic for one third of all persons worldwide. Several innovative approaches, based on partnerships, intellectual property, and pricing, are used to stimulate innovation, promote healthcare delivery, and reduce global health disparities. No single approach suffices, and therefore stakeholders need to further engage in partnerships promoting knowledge and technology transfer in assuring essential medicines to be manufactured, authorized, and distributed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in an effort of making them available at affordable and acceptable conditions.
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Stevens H., Huys I., Debackere K., Goldman M., Stevens P., Mahoney R.
Vaccines: Accelerating Innovation and Access
Global Challenges Report, WIPO, 2017
The analysis aims to put into perspective debates around health innovation and the availability of health technologies in developing countries, especially with respect to the role of IP. In particular, it provides an overview of how IP has been used to meet global health challenges in the vaccines field, and considers whether lessons can be drawn to inform other important health technologies.
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Laokri S.
Collaborative Approaches and Policy Opportunities for Accelerated Progress toward Effective Disease Prevention, Care and Control: Using the Case of Poverty Diseases to Explore Universal Access to Affordable Health Care.
Frontiers in Medicine, 2017 Aug 25;4:130. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2017.00130. eCollection 2017.
Despite a large political commitment and mobilization efforts from funding, the global development goal of financial protection for health—newly adopted in TB control as no TB-affected household experiencing catastrophic expenditure—may remain aspirational. To enhance effective access to care for all, innovative opportunities in patient-centered and collaborative practices must be taken.”
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Stevens H, Van Overwalle G, Van Looy B, Huys I.
IP policies in early-phase research in public-private partnerships: an overview and assessment of current practices.
Nat Biotechnol. 2016, 34(5);504-10.
An Intellectual Property (IP) policy analysis reveals the use of a variety of IP frameworks within early-phase biomedical Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Dependent on the nature of the research objectives, enacted IP frameworks or „knowledge sharing strategies‟ differ, ranging from „partnership oriented‟ models towards „open‟ models.

Goldman M.
Education in Medicine: Moving the boundaries to foster interdisciplinarity.
Front Med. 2016 Apr(3). Epub. 2016 Apr 8.
“Future advances [in precision medicine] will depend on innovative educational programs that will provide the next generation of healthcare professionals with sound and robust bases for interdisciplinary patient-focused approaches and that will develop their mindset for collaboration.”

Murray F., Aghion P., Dewatripont M., Kolev J., Stern S.
Of Mice and Academics: Examining the Effect of Openness on Innovation
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, February 2016, 8(1): 212–252
The paper argues that openness, by lowering costs to access existing research, can enhance both early and late stage innovation through greater exploration of novel research directions.
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Lambert PH, Goldman M.
Vaccination and Autoimmune Diseases.
The Vaccine Book. 2016;Ch.9:161-75. Elsevier, ISBN: 978-0-12-802174-3.
The association of vaccination and the potential risk of autoimmune adverse effects deserves particular attention. The book chapter reviews the reality of this concern for infection-associated autoimmune manifestations and guidelines are defined for clinicians to face the challenge of vaccinating patients with autoimmune diseases.

Lim MD, Brumfield MA, Goldman M.
Philanthropies as partners for drug development in public–private partnerships.
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences, 2015,1(1);1-4.
In addition to providing financial support and expertise, philanthropic foundations are in a unique position to coordinate the patient and research communities to enable and accelerate specific medicines development projects.

Gunn M, Lim MD, Cross D, Goldman M.
Benchmarking the scientific output of the Innovative Medicines Initiative.
Nat Biotechnol. 2015 Aug;33(8):811-2.
A holistic framework, going beyond measuring bibliometric data, has been proposed to compare and improve the performance of ongoing consortia and establish new ‘fit-for-purpose’ public-private partnerships. The whole framework of measurements takes into consideration evaluation criteria applicable to both the corporate and public worlds.